Recommended Reading

Online Learning, Instructional Design, Learning Theory

Allen, M. (2012). Leaving Addie for Sam: An agile model for developing the best learning experiences.  Association for Talent Development.

The ADDIE model originated out of a military training need. Times have changed, and a new paradigm for learning needs to be explored.  It’s time to move away from the sequential, one-size-fits-all mentality.  Students want to track their own progress and accreditors want to see performance. Success can be measured by getting people to do the right thing at the right time so they can have time to do their hobbies in the spare time such as playing casino games in the olympic kingsway casinos online. This book explores how to make it happen.

Ascough, R. S. (2002). “Designing for Online Distance Education: Putting Pedagogy Before Technology.” Teaching Theology & Religion 5(1): 17.

Theological schools are increasingly exploring online distance education as a mode of course delivery. Yet while online course delivery has the potential for effective, deep learning it can also have a number of pitfalls. This article introduces online distance education and examines in detail the pedagogical possibilities for online learning by providing a number of examples drawn from online courses. While championing the use of online course delivery for theological schools, it also sounds a note of caution by advocating that the use of technology should be driven by sound pedagogical principles. Putting pedagogy before technology will insure quality education no matter what the content or mode of delivery. If you are interested in how to write about computer games as a professional reviewer, you can check this out at sites like [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Teaching Theology & Religion is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bloom, B. S., Ed. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Book 1 Cognitive Domain. New York, Longman.

Bowen, W. G. L. K. A. (2013). “Higher education in the digital age.” from

“Two of the most visible and important trends in higher education today are its exploding costs and the rapid expansion of online learning. Could the growth in online courses slow the rising cost of college and help solve the crisis of affordability? In this short and incisive book, William G. Bowen, one of the foremost experts on the intersection of education and economics, explains why, despite his earlier skepticism, he now believes technology has the potential to help rein in costs without negatively affecting student learning. As a former president of Princeton University, an economist, and author of many books on education, including the acclaimed bestseller The Shape of the River, Bowen speaks with unique expertise on the subject.”–Provided by publisher.

Collison, G. (2000). Facilitating online learning : effective strategies for moderators. Madison, WI, Atwood Pub.

Conrad, R.-M. and J. A. Donaldson (2004). Engaging the online learner : activities and resources for creative instruction. San Francisco, Calif., Jossey-Bass.

Deulen, A. A. (2013). “Social constructivism and online learning environments: toward a theological model Christian educators.” Christian Education Journal: 90-98.

Duarte, N. (2008). Slide:ology : the art and science of creating great presentations. Sebastopol, CA, O’Reilly Media.

Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences : an integrated approach to designing college courses. San Francisco, Calif., Jossey-Bass.

Fleming, C. T. and J. B. Garner (2009). Brief guide for teaching adult learners. Marion, Ind., Triangle Publishing.

Garrison, D. R. and N. D. Vaughan (2008). Blended learning in higher education : framework, principles, and guidelines. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Hockridge, D. (2013). “Challenges for educators using distance and online education to prepare students for relational professions.” Distance Education 34(2): 142-160.

There are many challenges for educators in using distance and online education to adequately prepare students for their future professions. These challenges are accentuated in disciplines that prepare people for relational professions, which require people skills and a certain maturity of character. Educators in many disciplines, including theology, have questioned the suitability of distance and online education for preparing students for relational professions. This paper describes research that investigated educators’ concerns about distance and online education in Australian theological education institutions. These concerns focus around “formation” or character development, which is considered an essential element of theological education. The study used a questionnaire and interviews to explore theological educators’ understandings of formation and what educational practices can be used to encourage student formation. The coding of participant responses identified a number of categories of understandings and practices of formation. These provide a detailed and nuanced understanding of formation, which may assist educators in the development of formational learning in a variety of contexts and modes of study. It was also found that concerns about formation at a distance cluster around particular categories and practices of formation. Further exploration of these concerns and strategies for addressing them is recommended. These findings may be of interest for other disciplines which prepare people for relational professions or place value on character development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Distance Education is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Horton, W. K. (2006). E-learning by design. San Francisco, Pfeiffer.

Horton, W. K. and K. Horton (2003). E-learning tools and technologies : a consumer’s guide for trainers, teachers, educators, and instructional designers. Indianapolis, Indiana, Wiley.

Katz, R. N. (2008). The Tower and The Cloud: Higher Education in the Age of Cloud Computing. Washington, DC, Educause.

Ko, S. S. and S. Rossen (2004). Teaching online : a practical guide. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.

Krug, S. (2006). Don’t make me think! : a common sense approach to Web usability. Berkeley, Calif, New Riders Pub.

Morville, P. (2005). Ambient Findability. Sebastapol, O’Reilly Media, Inc.

Morville, P. a. R., Louis (2007). Information Architecture for the World Wide Web. Sebastapol, O’Reilly Media Inc.

Niederst Robbins, J. (2006). Web design in a nutshell : [a desktop quick reference]. Sebastopol, CA, O’Reilly.

Nielsen, J. (2000). Designing Web usability. Indianapolis, Ind., New Riders.

Norman, D. A. (2002). The design of everyday things. New York, Basic Books.

Norman, D. A. (2004). Emotional Design. New York, Basic Books.

Otter, R. R., et al. (2013). “Comparing student and faculty perceptions of online and traditional courses.” The Internet and Higher Education 19(0): 27-35.

Peters, T. J. and M. Barletta (2005). Essentials. New York, DK Pub.

Pink, D. H. (2005). A Whole New Mind. New York, Riverhead Books.

Pink, D. H. (2009). Drive. New York, Riverhead Books.

Reynolds, G. (2008). Presentation zen : simple ideas on presentation design and delivery. Berkeley, CA, New Riders.

Provides lessons to help users design and deliver creative presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint.

Shackelford, B. (2002). Project managing e-learning. Alexandria, VA, ASTD.

Shank, P. (2007). The online learning idea book : 95 proven ways to enhance technology-based and blended learning. San Francisco, Pfeiffer.

Smith, R. M. (2008). Conquering the content : a step-by-step guide to online course design. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Tagg, J. (2003). The learning paradigm college. Bolton, Mass., Anker Pub. Company.

Tufte, E. R. (1990). Envisioning information. Cheshire, Conn. (P.O. Box 430, Cheshire 06410), Graphics Press.

Tufte, E. R. (1997). Visual explanations : images and quantities, evidence and narrative. Cheshire, Conn., Graphics Press.

Tufte, E. R. (2001). The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, Conn., Graphics Press.

Tufte, E. R. (2006). Beautiful evidence. Cheshire, Conn., Graphics Press.

Tufte, E. R. (2006). The cognitive style of PowerPoint : pitching out corrupts within. Cheshire, Conn., Graphics Press.

Vaill, P. B. (1996). Learning as a Way of Being. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Weinberger, D. (2002). Small pieces, loosely joined : a unified theory of the web. Cambridge, MA, Perseus Pub.

Wiggins, G. P. (1998). Educative assessment : designing assessments to inform and improve student performance. San Francisco, Calif., Jossey-Bass.

Wiggins, G. P. and J. McTighe (2005). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Williams, R. (1996). Beyond The Mac is not a typewriter : more typographic insights and secrets. Berkeley, Calif., Peachpit Press.

Zeldman, J. and American Institute of Graphic Arts. (2007). Designing with Web standards. Indianapolis, Ind., New Riders.

Theological Education


While many theories exist to explain the phenomenon of learning, one of the oldest and most supported modeb is Vygotsky’s social constructivism. Although once a forgotten voice, many of the newer Western studies support this model. The present paper discusses social constructivism as an andragogkal model for Christian educators teaching in online learning environments and offers possible frameworks and strategies for doing so. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Cccu Center for Research in Adult Learning, F. C. T. T. C. B. C. f. C. C. and I. W. U. Universities (2010). Best practices in the integration of faith and learning for adult and online learners. [Marion, IN], Indiana Wesleyan University.

Dirksen, J. (2011) Design for how learn. New Riders

Farley, E. (2005). “Four Pedagogical Mistakes: A Mea Culpa.” Teaching Theology and Religion 8(4): 4.

Flynn, J. T. (2013). “Digital discipleship: Christian education in a digital world.” Christian Education Journal: 88-89.

Forrest, B. K. and M. A. Lamport (2013). “Modeling spiritual formation from a distance: Paul’s formation transactions with the Roman Christians.” Christian Education Journal: 110-124.

Frye, S. B. (2012). “Religious distance education goes online.” New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 2012(133): 13-22.

Fuller, R. H., et al. (1990). Christ and his communities : essays in honor of Reginald H. Fuller. Cincinnati, Ohio, Forward Movement Publications.

Hess, M. E. (2005). Engaging technology in theological education : all that we can’t leave behind. Lanham, Md., Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Hess, M. E. (2005). “What difference does it make? digital technology in the theological classroom.” Theological Education 41(1): 77-91.

Hess, M. E. and S. D. Brookfield (2008). Teaching reflectively in theological contexts: promises and contradictions. Malabar, Fla, Krieger.

Hines, T. S., et al. (2009). “Online Theological Education: A Case Study of Trinity School for Ministry.” Christian Higher Education 8(1): 32-41.

This article explores one seminary’s methodology for addressing the challenges and opportunities that online theological education presents in a Master of Divinity program. An implementation model for online courses is presented to foster holistic theological development, thus ensuring the establishment and progression of a spiritual and learning community. Implications for research and practice in Christian higher education are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Christian Higher Education is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Lowe, S. D. (2010). “Building Community and Facilitating Formation in Seminary Distance Education.” Christian Persepectives in Education 4(1).

Lowe, S. D. and M. E. Lowe (2010). “Spiritual Formation in Theological Distance Education: An Ecosystems Model.” Christian Education Journal 7(1): 85-102.

This article sets forth a model of student spiritual formation in Christian distance education that integrates the biblical concept of spiritual development that takes place within the spiritual ecology of the church as the body of Christ with Bronfenbrenner’s Ecology of Human Development theory. The ecosystems model views spiritual formation as an ecological phenomenon whether the ecosystem exists in physical, spiritual, or cyberspace environments, thereby offering evidence for the possibility of student spiritual formation in Christian distance education settings regardless of physical proximity. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Maddix, M. A. (2013). “Developing online learning communities.” Christian Education Journal: 139-148.

Maddix, M. A. (2012). “Best practices of online education a guide for Christian higher education.” from

Tan, S. (2012). “Theological diversity in a liberal seminary: United Theological Seminary of the Twin Cities.” Theological Education 47(1): 111-118.

Thorne, J. A. (2013). “Biblical online education: contributions from constructivism.” Christian Education Journal: 99-109.

Wood, L. (2013). “Face-to-screen learning: seminaries go online.” Christian Century 130(4): 28-29.

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